We have been talking about cells being a unit of organization in biology. Let’s look at the cell membrane and see how that membrane keeps all of the pieces inside. When you think about a membrane, imagine it is like a big plastic bag with some tiny holes. That bag holds all of the cell pieces and fluids inside the cell and keeps any nasty things outside the cell. The holes are there to let some things move in and out of the cell.
The nucleus is a membrane bound structure that contains the cell’s hereditary information and controls the cell’s growth and reproduction. It is commonly the most prominent organelle in thecell.The nucleus is surrounded by a structure called the nuclear envelope. This membrane separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The cell’s chromosomes are also housed within the nucleus. Chromosomes contain DNA which provides the genetic information necessary for the production of other cell components and for the reproduction of life.
The Golgi complex or Golgi apparatus is responsible for manufacturing, warehousing, and shipping certain cellular products, particularly those from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Depending on the type of cell, there can be just a few complexes or there can be hundreds. Cells that specialize in secreting various substances typically have a high number of Golgi complexes.
Ribosomes are typically composed of two subunits: a large subunit and a small subunit. Ribosomal subunits are synthesized by the nucleolus. These two subunits join together when the ribosome attaches to messenger RNA (mRNA) during protein synthesis. Ribosomes along with another RNA molecule, transfer RNA (tRNA), help to translate the proein-coding genes in mRNA into proteins.
Cells are the structural and functional units of all living organisms. Some organisms, such as bacteria, are unicellular, consisting of a single cell. Other organisms, such as humans, are multicellular, or have many cells—an estimated 100,000,000,000,000 cells! Each cell is an amazing world unto itself: it can take in nutrients, convert these nutrients into energy, carry out specialized functions, and reproduce as necessary. Even more amazing is that each cell stores its own set of instructions for carrying out each of these activities